We are going to structure the wiki in different sections, which will be explaining what is the function and work that an interpreter has to do, a brief and informative comment about the deaf community, a collection of computer programs which a translator can use and a translation of the wiki into Catalan and English.
Some deaf community features
-Introduction to the deaf community and its features:
We are going to begin erasing a pretty common myth for those who can hear: The person who does not hear is habitually called “deaf-mute”.
This assertion is not completely true. Although it is true that a person who does not hear is a deaf person, it does not imply that is a mute one, because his or her vocal strings remain intact and is able to emit sounds. The problem is found in the fact that deaf people cannot perceive their own voice, that is why they generally prefer not to speak instead it is strictly necessary, due to in some occasions their voice could sound a little bit shrill to the hearing people, even bothering. This fact could be abolished if since deafness is diagnosed in childhood is applied in school a bilingual education, which refers to Oral Language and Sign Language. By doing this, the deaf kid will be able to become a part of the hearing society without any problem.
-Another myth or mistake very common:
Otro mito o error muy común es denominar la Lengua de Signos como Lenguaje de Signos.
El lenguaje es la capacidad humana de poder expresarse, pero no se concreta en ningún código ni tiene reglas a las que acatar, mientras que la lengua sí que dispone de los mismos. Por lo tanto, si nos atenemos a esto, el nombre correcto es Lengua de Signos.
-Next myth: The Sign Language is universal.
Sign Language is the language used by deaf people globally, like Spanish is spoken in Spain or Catalan is spoken in catalonian countries. But Catalan and Spanish have their own dialects because the speakers are not close between them, because of that they have developed their own communicative variants. The same happens with deaf people, with the addition of that during a lot of years Sign Language has been banned for considering that the fact of using it belongs for a low cultural level.
For example, in Spain exist two variants of Sign Language: The Spanish one and the Catalan one, similar between them in a 70%. Leaving apart all these myths, we have to take on account that deaf people have developed a huge pride of what they are, though there are exceptions, like in all cases. If we put ourselves in their skin and think about the stress in which they live daily being in a world in which the only thing they see is people who move their lips but for them they are not transmitting any message, we will see reasonable that they have the necessity of gathering in Associations, Federations and Confederations, where they can be released of all these tautnesses. For being the most important ones we can stand out “Deaf People National Confederation of Spain” for national ambit and “FESOCA (Federation of Deaf People of Catalonia) for a regional ambit.
Sign Language Interpreter
As popular as unknown, as necessary as scant. Its figure, always present in deaf people gatherings, meetings, conferences, or in the particular ambit in job or personal interviews, consultations… Keeps being related, for an important social sector, to the beneficity help of a relative, friend, volunteer or people who vocationally do the noble and humanitarian work of being a communicative bridge between people who use different modes of communication. It is unknown by the most of the beneficiaries of their services. They would be deaf and hearing people as users or consumers.
The Sign Language interpreter is a professional who solves what the most sophisticated technical helps cannot solve, nowadays, something as elemental as the direct communication between a deaf and a hearing person or a no-signer one, and satisfy like this one of the most basic features of the human kind, “the relationship with his similars”.
These professionals of the communication, who has not have to be relatives or sons of deaf people, have to prove in front of the deaf community their knowledges and communicative competitions in Sign Language to do their job, being under an ethic code, keeping in secret the facts which they know doing their job and focus only in translating and interpreting, without making any influence in the manifestations of the people whom interpret and being absolutely truthfully in their transmissions.
There are not any united criterions, in the national ambit, about the provision of interpreting services in Sign Language due to each region has their own criterions. Nevertheless, all regions in their laws of Abolishment of Communication Barriers, recognize the right of deaf and deaf-blind people to the Sign Language interpreters service, being pretty different between one regions and others.
It is estimated in about 200 the number of interpreters of Sign Language in Spain, very few for the existing demand for these professionals, and they would have to be multiplied by 20 for attending the basic needs, it means, specialized interpreters or connoisseurs for the different disciplines like Law, Psychology, Health… Constantly present in Law Courts, Police Stations, Hospitals, Public Administration offices, Colleges, formative centers…
The formation of these professionals is recollected in the Royal Decree 20601, 1995, 22nd of December 1995, and published in the BOE number 47, 23rd of February 1996, in which is established in the degree of “Superior Technician in Sign Language Interpretation” and the corresponding lessons.
This degree is official and valid in all the national territory, though nowadays the formation and origin for most of the interpreters are found in the Deaf People Associations through the courses of Sign Language, hearing and deaf people, divided in 3 years and a duration of 3 years too.
It focus its efforts in three points of acting:
1.- Interpreters formation
2.- Working conditions
3.- Consumers education
Since Sign Language has been analyzed, researched and situated from domains and linguistic disciplines like social-linguistics, and psychologist-linguistics and this work is giving his fruits in form of conclusions, it is being recognized Sing Language as a language with its own structure, grammar and rules syntactical-organization.
The Sign Language interpreter, whose hands are his tongue, his face and accent, and his body prosody for deaf people eyes, eyes which become attentive ears to the expression of a new event, for a comment, for a feeling, is the professional that deaf people claim for a bigger, real and full social integration and participation.
Criterions of the 20 applications
We’ve decided, in order to describe the programmes, doing it like this:
-Description of the program and why is it interesting: We’ve made this decision because we think that these two concepts are very close to each other, that is why it doesn’t make sense to separeate them as two different concepts to describe.
-Languages in which it is available: This will help the user to choose between some programs and others.
-Supplier: Person, entity or website from where the computer application can be obtained.
-Licence: Free or not free, depending on if it is for free or it is necessary to pay for it. If it’s necessary to pay, it will be specified how much does the program cost.
The 20 Computer Applications
Description: One of the top brands in the market of computer asisted translation tools. It is a translation software used in computers.
Supplier: SDL International
Licence: Private, from 296’012€ to 891’012€
Operative System: Windows
Languages: English, German, Chinese, French
-Windos Microsoft Office
Description: Hardware and software equipment used for creating, storaging, manipulating and sending digitally needed infromation in an office to make tasks and achieve basic targets.
Licence: Private. From 130€, depending on the needs of every user
Operative System: Windows
Languages: German, Arabian, Spanish, French, English, Italian
Description: It’s a project that, besides of facilitating the free software download, offers Internet users its source code, and invites to colaborate for free in the web’s development, bugs correction, parch programming…
Operative Systems: Win2000/XP/2003/Vista/7
Description: Translation of texts and websites on-line
Description: Use for making videoconferences with even five users in a simultaneous mode, sending and recibing videomessages or texted messages, recibing notifications; among other possibilities.
Operative Systems: Win2000/XP/Vista/7
Languages: Spanish, English, Portuguese, German, French, Italian
Description: Little hand computers with integrated reference material. There are some electronic dictionaries which are computer programs distributed en CD-ROM or free on-line software on Internet. They are useful because they’re a portable translation tool which can be used in any moment.
Supplier: Many, among them Casio, Sharp o Canon
Licence: In the case of those which are computer programs they’re free or not free. Usually, those which are on Internet are free, the one which come in a CD-ROM format aren’t.
Operative System: The little han computers have their own operative system or work with some of the most known ones. Tohse which are computer programs have differents features. Most of them work with the most common operative systems (Windows, Mac, Linux…)
Languages: It depends on the features of every little hand computer. They will contain the most common languages like English, Spanish or Chinese
Description: They’re used for consulting words or terms which have already been sequenced alphabetically. Of these words or terms it is provided their meaning, etimology, spelling and, in the case of certain languages, their pronunciation and silabic division
Operative Systems: All
Languages: This will depend onto which language will have to be translated the message.
Description: A list of words with their corresponding translation in video into the Sign Language
Operative Systems: Anyone
Languages: Catalan, German, English, French, Arabian, Bahasa Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Slovenian
Description: It’s an instantaneous messaging program which allows tio chat at the same time that it’s made a video call or a phone call in real time
Operative Systems: Win2000/XP/Vsita/7
Languiages: Spanish, English, Catalan, Portuguese, Gwerman, French, Italian, Chinese
Description: It’s a program to talk through computers with all relatives and friends which promises a bigger sound quality than the rest of this kind of programs, even more than a normal phone call.
Operative Systems: Win2000/XP/Vista/7
Languages: Spanish, English, Catalan, Portuguese, German, French, Italian, Chinese
Description: A tool that you can watch a video while performing annotations marked on the signs seen in it, which could change the playing speed, add categories … It’s interesting because so far there was no program that would learn many signs soon, very useful for any language interpreter because it is constantly being updated.
Languages: Netherlands, Spanish, Catalan, English, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish
Operating system: Windows XP/Vista/MAC
Description: Allows writing messages using sign language and sign language translation of the Oral as well as for reviewing the finger spelling like to learn the names of cities, for example. The user can modify as he pleases the program, adjusting it to your needs. You can even add his own words and do a test to test their knowledge.
His interest is that it is useful to expand vocabulary and adapts to user type. Its most outstanding feature is being able to translate more easily to LSC Oral language, since it is often a process that without the help of an interpreter support can take a long time.
Provider: University of Barcelona.
Operating System: Any
Description: Provides translation of LSC to written language (Catalan) or LSC written language and includes a picture or short video to illustrate the search word. Its use assumes that you can refresh your memory that you need an interpreter or a translator extra help Shell also support when you translate a complex text, because it is often difficult to find an exact equivalent for the two languages.
Operating System: Any
Description: The program is equipped with a dictionary of signs needed; graphic files can be exported to other programs attached to. Pdf files and can be read on any operating system. His interest is in the versatility of its disposal, and that can be used almost without restriction in any computer.
Languages: Flemish, French, Portuguese, Danish, German, English, Italian, Nicaraguan, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish.
License: Not Free (must be paid $ 15.)
Operating System: any
Description: The program can contact an interpreter, a deaf person and, for example, a doctor at once via video and microphone (for use in the case of listeners). This is useful because it facilitates telecommuting and ensures the right of access to information for the deaf.
Language: Catalan or Spanish, according to the used and the LSC.
License: Free (was discharged both the user and the entity in the service.)
Operating System: Any
Description: A “Sign Language Interpreter” and capture the movements via a webcam, interpreting and translating them. It can be an interesting program because it is based on the capture of the signs and can expedite the work.
Operating system: Windows XP
Description: This is a very effective tool for creating and producing subtitles. It is interesting because it allows monitoring of any audio-visual without sound.
Operating system: Win95/98/98SE/Me/2000/NT/XP
Description: This program allows you to add subtitles in avi files and other formats. You can also modify and change as the subtitles.
Operating system: Windows / MAC OS / LINUX
Description: Lets you add the subtitles in divx format videos easily and conveniently.
Operating Systems: Win95/98/98SE/Me/2000/NT/XP
GRAMÀTICA BÀSICA LSC
Description: Contains the basic grammar of the Catalan sign language and is attached to a CD to install on your computer.
Language: Catalan, Castilian, English
License: Privately, 30 €
Operating System: Windows XP, Vista, MAC.
In our project we will use Boolean Searchers for searching in a more precisely way computer programs and other applications that could help us to develope our job like Interpreters and Translators of Sign Language. Meanwhile we were doing this work, we have been realizing of what are the Boolean Searchers which will help us more in our research and what are the ones which will help us less.
Those which will be more helpful
-AND or Y: Boolean Searcher which inidcates that we want to find those results which contan all and each of the words. If we write the symbol “+” before everyone of these words we will obtain the same result.
-OR or O: Boolean Searcher which is udes to specify that anyone of the written words in the searcher could appear in the results. As “AND/Y” could be used too to do more complex researches.
-NOT or NO: Boolean Searcher which is used to exclude the words or expressions which are usually related with the included words in the research.
-Writing the words between commas: If we write between commas the words we want to do the research about we will obtain a sentence instead of only words, which will give us more precision and flexibility.
Those which will be less useful
-ADJ: It s used to search close words inside the same document, and we really don’t think we are going to use it.
-NEAR: It is used to find the words we want to search into the first 25 results. It won’t be useful for us because we have never prioritized an order.
-FAR: It does the opposite action of NEAR, locating documents in which the searching terms that appear with 25 words or more from. For the same reason exposed previously, this Boolean Searcher nor will be useful.
-BEFORE: It works like “AND/Y”, but it only looks for the words in the exact order in which they are requested. It’s not useful because of, although we will need that certain terms to be searched together, we won’t need that they will be searched in a specific order.